Ibn Ḥawqal, Abū l-Qāsim b. ʿAlī l-Naṣībī (d. after /) was an Arab geographer and cartographer who sought to provide up-to-date representations of the. Called Abu al-Qasim, he is Muhammad b. Hawqal, originally from al-Jazira region in Turkey, north of Mardin. He is also referred to as al-Nusaybini, after. Kitab Surat al-Ardh (كتاب صورة الأرض) The Shape of the Earth. by Ibn Hawqal and M.J. De Goeje. Currently unavailable.

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Goldfields are indicated by light brown shading. Member feedback about Arran Caucasus: In the commercial front, Ibn Hawqal described the commercial taxes of some regions, particularly that of Morocco, and made a note on commercial goods that were brought from regions and sold in others for very profitable price, like a sack of salt sold for Dirhams in Morocco due to its unavailability there.

Yet his geographic accounts of his personal travels were relied upon, and found useful, by medieval Arab travellers.

Classical origins Pliny the Elder wrote in section 5.

Ibn Hawqal: Biography of Ibn Hawqal

This new tradition of Islamic cartography differed from the Greco-Muslim tradition in many respects. His books described the travel routes from one region to another, and added to that minor pathways that branched from the main routes and led to smaller towns and hamlets. Arabic painting made for the Norman kings c.

In many cases, scholars have themselves stated that they were prompted to carry out their hawqzl because of the religious needs of the community, or because they felt duty-bound to correct hzwqal wrong practices. Member feedback about Ghana Empire: Its capital was the city of Soba, located near modern-day Khartoum at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile rivers.

Founded sometime after the ancient kingdom of Kush fell, in around AD, Alodia is hawqall mentioned in historical records in These authorities do not, however, agree on the geographical location of hawal White Aethiopians. History of Islam in southern Italy topic Arabic painting made for the Norman kings c.

The chapter on the Byzantine Empire – known in the Muslim world as, and called by the Byzantines themselves, the “Lands of the Romans” – gives his first-hand observation of the languages spoken in the Caucasuswith the Lingua Franca being Azeri and Persian across the region.


Ibn Hawqal’s Kitab Surat al-ard : J. H. Kramers :

Tarki corresponds more closely to medieval sources, as the 10th-century Hudud al-‘Alam reports that Samandar was on the coast, and archaeological finds from the Khazar period, including fortifications, have been found there.

Member feedback about List of Shia Muslims: AdamecHistorical Dictionary of Islam, p. There are three basic kinds of nougat. Member feedback about List of Muslim geographers: Balkh topic Balkh ; Pashto and Persian: The island has a typical Mediterranean climate.

Arabic sources The earliest mention of Aoudaghost is by al-Yaqubi in his Kitab al-Buldan completed in in which he described the town as being nawqal by a tribe of the Sanhaja and situated 50 stages south of Sijilmasa across the Sahara desert. Lists of social scientists Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Populated places established in the 5th century Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Furthermore, Azerbaijan is recognized as an yawqal medium of instruction in Dagestan and in the Republic of Azerbaijan, however, it is not an official language in Northern Iran where the number of Azerbaijanis exceed the ones in the Republic of Azerbaijan itself. Views Read Edit View history. The rule of the Zirid emirs ihn the way to a period in North African history where political power was held by Berber dynasties such as the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid dynasty, Marinid dynasty and Hafsid dynasty.

Yawqal developments of Greek geography during this time, notably by Eratosthenes and Posidonius culminated in the Roman era, with Ptolemy’s world map 2nd century CEwhich would remain authoritative throughout the Middle Ages.

In his work, Ibn Hawqal did not restrict himself to geographical data but discussed major cities, people, their customs, and everything interesting about life in the regions he discussed. Aoudaghost topic Trade routes of the Western Sahara c.

Ibn Hawqal (d-380H) إبن حَوقَل

History of Islam Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of geographers topic This list of geographers is presented in English alphabetical transliteration order by surnames. It was one of the settlements on the Samarkand-Bukhara road, lying between Zarman to the east and al-Dabusiya to the west,[2] and was located to the south of the Sughd River.


Temple had also four small domes at its four corners. Temple was situated at the center of the town. Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari Persian: Hawqal, originally from al-Jazira region in Turkey, north of Mardin.

Member feedback about Arthania: It was originally a summer capital of the Idrisid dynasty from the 8th to 10th centuries.

They are involved in trade with Kuyaba, selling sable furs, lead, and a modicum of slaves. A red flag was hoisted on a long bamboo post.

On my first visit to the rock church of Abreha and Atsbeha in eastern Tigray inI noticed that its intricately carved ceiling was blackened by soot. World maps assuming a spherical Earth first appear in the Hellenistic period.

Ibn Hawqal, Muhammad, 10th cent | The Online Books Page

It is effectively both a continuation and an update of al-Is t akhri ‘s Kita b al-Masa lik wa l-mama lik and is also known under ib same title. Member feedback about Alodia: Gudit stela field, Axum, Ethiopia Gudit Ge’ez: This is verified by referring to texts such as those by Tabari, Abolfazl Beyhaghi, Tarikh-i Sistan, and Safar nama of Naser Khosrow, among many others.

haeqal Istakhri met the celebrated traveller-geographer Ibn Haukul, while travelling in the Indus Valley [2] and Haukul’s magnum opus, Kitab al-Surat al-Ard, incorporated the work of Istakhri.

This article needs additional citations for verification. His Hadqal of the Climates Suwar al-aqalim consisted chiefly of geographical maps. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient, more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river.

Member feedback about Rabinjan: It is his book, Surat al-Ardfrom which we can derive some information about him while to the effect that hawqla was fond of reading especially books by Khurdadhebah, Qudadamah and al-Jihani, which might have been the reason behind his keenness to travel and see the places he read about.